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Six Types of Training and Development Methods
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most regularly used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, though little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is often impossible to teach somebody everything she must know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training typically supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is continuously the only form of training. It is often casual, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer doesn't concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated image of what the novice needs to learn.
On-the-job training is not successful when used to avoid developing a training program, though it will be an effective part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to succeed in many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning strategies, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These units systematically present data to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement rules to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed within the Nineteen Fifties, it was thought to be helpful only for primary subjects. At present the tactic is used for skills as various as air visitors control, blueprint reading, and the evaluation of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can be taught at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the pc, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Academic alternatives can be quickly selected to suit the student's capabilities, and performance may be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Methods
Each television and film prolong the range of skills that may be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The use of methods that combine audiovisual systems corresponding to closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new time period for this type of training, teletraining. The function on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one in every of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential traits of the real world which can be necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Each machine and other types of simulators exist. Machine simulators typically have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that's, they characterize the real world's operational equipment. The principle goal of simulation, nevertheless, is to produce psychological fidelity, that's, to reproduce within the training those processes that will be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to manage the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning principles, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They're the direct progeny of war games which were used to train officers in combat methods for hundreds of years. Nearly all early enterprise games had been designed to teach primary enterprise skills, however more latest games additionally embrace interpersonal skills. Monopoly could be considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It is probably the primary place children learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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